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131. Liou, H. -C., 2001, Reflective practice in a pre-service teacher education program for high school English teachers in Taiwan, ROC, System, Vol. 29, No.2, pp.197-208.
Location:
Taiwan
Type of subjects/data: Student teachers
No. of subjects/data: 20
Instruments: Observation
Method of analysis: - Coding observation reports by using Farrell's scheme
Other aspects:
Research design:
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Critical reflection; Teacher development; Pre-service teachers; Language teaching


132. Babaii, E. and Ansary, H., 2001, The C-test: a valid operationalization of reduced redundancy principle?, System, Vol.29, No.2, pp.209-219.
Location:
Iran
Type of subjects/data: Students
No. of subjects/data: 32
Instruments: Test, Verbal report
Method of analysis: - Calculate the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between both tests to establish the empirical validity of the tests
- Analyze data elicited through verbal protocols about how the subject completed the task
Other aspects:
Research design:
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
C-test; Language proficiency; Reduced redundancy principle; Language testing; Verbal protocol analysis


133. Braine, G., 2001, When an exit test fails, System, Vol.29, No.2, pp.221-234.
Location:
United States
Type of subjects/data: Students
No. of subjects/data: 258
Instruments: Test, Interview
Method of analysis: - Analyze the exit test prompts and exit exam transcripts
- Score guides used in writing class to evaluate exit exams
Other aspects: Test scoring guide
Research design:
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
ESL students; Writing programs; First-year writing courses; Exit tests


134. Liaw, M. -L. and Johnson, R.J., 2001, E-mail writing as a cross-cultural learning experience, System, Vol.29, No.2, pp.235-251.
Location:
Taiwan
Type of subjects/data: Students and Teachers
No. of subjects/data: 112
Instruments: Online discussion, Written report
Method of analysis: - Categorize e-mail entries
- Analyze the subjects' reports
- Interpret data from e-mail entries and reports
Other aspects:
Research design:
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
E-mail; Cross-cultural; English as a Foreign Language; Pre-service teachers


135. Ghaith, G., 2001, Learners' perceptions of their STAD cooperative experience, System, Vol.29, No.2, pp.289-301.
Location:
Lebanon
Type of subjects/data: Students
No. of subjects/data: 61
Instruments: Rating scale
Method of analysis: - Tally responses of the subjects to the rating scale
- Compute the frequencies and percentages of the responses
- Run Pearson Chi-square tests with the variables of gender and achievement, and the subjects' responses to the scale
Other aspects: - Content validity of the test
Research design:
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Cooperative language; Learner perceptions; English as a foreign language; Language learning


136. Iwashita, N., 2001, The effect of learner proficiency on interactional moves and modified output in nonnativeľnonnative interaction in Japanese as a foreign language, System, Vol.29, No.2, pp.267-287.
Location:
Australia
Type of subjects/data: Students
No. of subjects/data: 24
Instruments: Task/ activity
Method of analysis: - Transcribe the subjects' interactions during the tasks
- Code the transcript according to C-units as defined by Rulon and McCreary (1986)
- Categorize the subjects' outputs
Other aspects: - Reliability test
Research design:
Level of detail: Medium

Keywords:
Learner proficiency; Nonnative; Foreign language


137. Cabaroglu, N. and Roberts, J., 2000, Development in student teachers' pre-existing beliefs during a 1-year PGCE programme, System, Vol.28, No.3, pp.387-402.
Location:
United Kingdom
Type of subjects/data: Student teachers
No. of subjects/data: 25
Instruments: Interview, Questionnaire
Method of analysis: - Highlight the sections of transcriptions which relevant to the research questions
- Code the data on the basis of the themes, issues and topics
- Assess codes
- Define codes
Other aspects: Tactics to test and confirm interpretations
Research design:
Level of detail: High

Keywords:
Beliefs; Modern languages; Partnership; Pre-service; Qualitative; Student teachers; Teacher education


138. Chapple, L. and Curtis, A., 2000, Content-based instruction in Hong Kong: student responses to film, System, Vol.28, No.3, pp.419-433.
Location:
Hong Kong
Type of subjects/data: Students
No. of subjects/data: 31
Instruments: Questionnaire
Method of analysis: - Tally responses of the subjects and compute the percentages
- Interpret the interview data about what the subject believed they had learned from the course
Other aspects: The categories used to differentiate the degree of language skills improvement
Research design:
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Content-based instruction; Film; ESL; EFL; Academic, analytical and critical thinking skills


139. O'Sullivan, B., 2000, Exploring gender and oral proficiency interview performance, System, Vol.28, Vol.3, pp.373-386.
Location:
Japan
Type of subjects/data: Students and Teachers
No. of subjects/data: 18
Instruments: Interview, Observation
Method of analysis: - Score speaking performance by using FSI
- Analyze score by using a two-way repeated measure ANOVA
- Compare scores given by interviews and observers
- Analyze the transcripts of the language that produced by the subjects
- Transcribe and analyze the interactions during interview sessions for speech style characteristics of the interviewers
- Analyze the language of interviewers in terms of theri questions and response type
- Compare the frequencies of the different speech style characteristics produced by the subjects under the two conditions
Other aspects: - Foreign Services Institute (FSI) speaking test
- Inter-rater reliability training program for the interviewers
- Speaking style characteristics
Research design:
Level of detail: Medium

Keywords:
Language testing; Speaking; Performance; Gender; Quantitative; Qualitative


140. Arva, V. and Medgyes, P., 2000, Native and non-native teachers in the classroom, System, Vol.28, No.3, pp.355-372.
Location:
Hungary
Type of subjects/data: Teachers
No. of subjects/data: 10
Instruments: Interview
Method of analysis: - Analyze interview data
- Compare the results of native and non-native teachers
Other aspects:
Research design:
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Native speaker; Non-native speaker; Native speaking teacher of English; Non-native speaking teacher of English; Teaching behaviour; Target language competence; Language awareness


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