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351. Wolf, J.P., 2008, The effects of backchannels on fluency in L2 oral task production, System, Vol.36, No.2, pp.279-294. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.11.007
Location:
Japan
Type of subjects/data: student
No. of subjects/data: 14
Instruments: Task/ activity
Method of analysis: - fluency was measured
- time on task was counted
- ANOVA
Other aspects:
Research design:
Quasi-experimental research
Level of detail: Medium

Keywords:
Second language learning; Backchannels; Language teaching; Second language fluency


352. Song, M.-J. and Suh, B.-R., 2008, The effects of output task types on noticing and learning of the English past counterfactual conditional, System, Vol.36, No.2, pp.295-312. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.09.006
Location:
Korea (south)
Type of subjects/data: student
No. of subjects/data: 52
Instruments: Task/ activity, Test
Method of analysis: - descriptive statistics
- ANOVA
Other aspects:
Research design:
Quasi-experimental research
Level of detail: High

Keywords:
Output; Noticing; Grammar teaching; Task types; English past counterfactual conditionals; English as a foreign language


353. Humphreys, G. and Spratt, M., 2008, Many languages, many motivations: A study of Hong Kong studentsí motivation to learn different target languages, System, Vol.36, No.2, pp.313-335. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.09.010
Location:
Hong Kong
Type of subjects/data: student
No. of subjects/data: 526
Instruments: Questionnaire, Interview
Method of analysis: - factor analysis
- t-test
- ANOVA
- correlation
- Cronbach alpha
Other aspects: questionnaire on language learning motivation
Research design:
Survey research
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Language learning motivation; Attitudes to English, Putonghua, French, German, Japanese; Hong Kong studentsí language attitudes


354. Broersma, M. and Cutler, A., 2008, Phantom word activation in L2, System, Vol.36, No.1, pp.22-34. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.11.003
Location:
More than one country
Type of subjects/data: student: Native speaker of Dutch, Native speaker of English
No. of subjects/data: 60, 60
Instruments: Task/ activity
Method of analysis: - reaction time (RT) and percen correct responses were measured
- descriptive statistics, ANOVA
Other aspects:
Research design:
Quasi-experimental research
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Word recognition; Activation; Competition; Listening; L1; L2; Phantom words


355. Field, J., 2008, Revising segmentation hypotheses in first and second language listening, System, Vol.36, No.1, pp.35-51. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.10.003
Location:
More than one country
Type of subjects/data: student: Native, and non-native speaker of English, native speaker of French
No. of subjects/data: 112, 113, 39
Instruments: Task/ activity
Method of analysis: - descriptive statistics
- chi-square
- correlation
Other aspects:
Research design:
Quasi-experimental research
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Perseveration; Gating; Second language listening; Spoken word recognition; Auditory processing; On-line processing; Lexical segmentation


356. Graham, S., Santos, D. and Vanderplank, R., 2008, Listening comprehension and strategy use: A longitudinal exploration, System, Vol.36, No.1, pp.52-68. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.11.001
Location:
United Kingdom
Type of subjects/data: student
No. of subjects/data: 2
Instruments: Task/ activity, Test, Verbal report
Method of analysis: - verbal reports were coded
- responses to the multiple-choice questions between the 1st and 2nd tasks were compared
Other aspects: - listening strategy coding scheme
Research design:
Case study
Level of detail: High

Keywords:
Listening comprehension; Learner strategies; French as a foreign language; Verbal report


357. Zielinski, B.W., 2008, The listener: No longer the silent partner in reduced intelligibility, System, Vol.36, No.1, pp.69-84. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.11.004
Location:
Australia
Type of subjects/data: native speaker of Australian English, L2 speaker of English
No. of subjects/data: 3, 3
Instruments: Task/ activity
Method of analysis: - the speech signal was analysed
- the features of the speech signal were identified
Other aspects: preparing speech sample: Sonic Foundry ACID Pro 3.0 software
Research design:
Exploratory research
Level of detail: High

Keywords:
Intelligibility; EFL/ESL; Listening; Speech perception; Foreign accent


358. Guichon, N. and McLornan, S., 2008, The effects of multimodality on L2 learners: Implications for CALL resource design, System, Vol.36, No.1, pp.85-93. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.11.005
Location:
France
Type of subjects/data: Undergraduate students
No. of subjects/data: 40
Instruments: Written report/ paper
Method of analysis: students' written summary was analysed and scored in terms of 35 semantic units
Other aspects:
Research design:
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Second language listening; Multimodality; Comprehension; Materials design


359. Al-jasser, F., 2008, The effect of teaching English phonotactics on the lexical segmentation of English as a foreign language, System, Vol.36, No.1, pp.94-106. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.12.002
Location:
Saudi Arabia
Type of subjects/data: Native and non-native speakers of English
No. of subjects/data: 12, 40
Instruments: Task/ activity, Test
Method of analysis: - error analysis
- descriptive statistics
- ANOVA
Other aspects: DMDX experiment control software
Research design:
Quasi-experimental research
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Listening comprehension; Lexical segmentation; Phonotactics; Bottom-up


360. Yanagawa, K. and Green, A., 2008, To show or not to show: The effects of item stems and answer options on performance on a multiple-choice listening comprehension test, System, Vol.36, No.1, pp.107-122. doi:10.1016/j.system.2007.12.003
Location:
Japan
Type of subjects/data: TOEIC test taker
No. of subjects/data: 279
Instruments: Test
Method of analysis: tests' scored were computed and compared: ANOVA
Other aspects:
Research design:
Quasi-experimental research
Level of detail: Low

Keywords:
Second language listening; Multiple-choice testing; Test factors; Test format


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